Ancient Tree Flowers

first_imgSurrounded by trees, it’s easy to overlook their value. It’s also easy to ignore theirgreat biological history. But deep in the past, the story of trees contains many lessons. The wind was left behind in the forest top, along with the many wind-pollinatedflowers of other tree species. Long ago on a continent far away was a warm, humid forest. In it were many kinds ofplants, each locked into fierce competition to collect and control resources. Thesuccessful ones could grow, defend themselves and reproduce. Only successful plantssurvived. The showy tree flowers we see today are from this lineage. Their bright colors are astop sign for animals to explore, maybe receive a treat — and fertilize the tree bycarrying pollen. To succeed, a tree had to reproduce. One successful reproduction system was “conebearing.” Early in tree history, many forms of spirally designed cones were producedon branches and along trunks for seed production. These trees also produced small, fragile cones that held pollen. When these conesmature, they rupture and release millions of pollen grains. For creatures that use sight and smell, tree flowers can be great attractants and anecessity. Trees have come a long way from a simple, small, magnolia-like flower inthe bottom of a forest to the widely diverse tree-borne flowers we see outside ourwindows. Large, woody cones held seeds where the tree could nourish the embryos, and wherethe wind could catch seed edges and wings for distribution across the forest. Georgia’s trees tell many stories of success and failure, an ecological heritage that hassheltered humans from climate and poverty. One day among the dinosaurs, a genetic experiment was set up. A small tree, growingbeneath much larger and taller brethren, generated a flower. It wasn’t derived, as coneswere, from woody twigs but from modified leaves.center_img Warm, sunny days with low relative humidity help release pollen. The air around thesmall cones buoyed up the pollen as the wind swirled it around the canopy tops. The forests, savannahs and prairies of Earth are covered with wind-borne pollenproducers. From some perspectives, showy flowers are relics of a genetic experimentthat failed. People have been able to extract great value from these showy-floweredspecies. This tree flower was designed not for the wind, but to attract insects, birds and smallmammals. Only those trees whose crowns were up in the wind could distribute pollen and seedssuccessfully to new sites. Young trees had to survive for years beneath taller light- andwind-blocking trees for their place in the sun. Across the plant kingdom, the showy flowers have been successful in many places. Butthe miniaturized wind-pollinated flowers have become even more successful. In this experiment, all the tree traits (and all the resources required for these traits)needed to use wind power for reproduction could now be used instead to induceanimals to move pollen. This required new parts and designs. Trees generated newcolors, shapes and smells as enticements. For little trees, the dungeons or understories of these forests were hard to escape beforecompetition and pests eliminated them. The spring you see and smell had its roots in an ancient forest.last_img read more

ROUNDTABLE RELEASES THIRD QUARTER, 2005 RESULTS

first_imgROUNDTABLE RELEASES THIRD QUARTER, 2005CEO ECONOMIC OUTLOOK SURVEY RESULTSSouth Burlington, VT – Results from the Roundtable’s Third Quarter, 2005 CEO Economic Outlook Survey, show that business executives are expecting increases in both sales and capital expenditures over the coming six months, while employment levels will remain virtually unchanged from the previous reporting period.Chris Dutton, President and CEO of Green Mountain Power, is a member of the Vermont Business Roundtable. When asked to comment on his CEO Economic Outlook Survey responses, Dutton said, “The economy is strong in our service area. As we look ahead we expect increased sales. Additionally, the company expects to increase capital spending to make sure that our electric service is reliable, as that is what our customers value the most.”Conducted in the month of July, the Roundtable’s CEO Economic Outlook Survey enjoyed a response rate of 62%. The key findings, which reflect the membership’s outlook for the next six months, include the following details:* 74% of responding CEOs expect an increase in consumer sales, 24% see no change, and 2% anticipate a decrease. [Second Quarter Results: Increase 75%, No Change 23%, Decrease 2%]* 57% expect capital spending to increase in the next six months, 38% see no change, and 5% anticipate a decrease. [Second Quarter Results: Increase 49%, No Change 43%, Decrease 8%]* 49% expect employment to increase, 44% see no change, and 7% anticipate a decrease. [Second Quarter Results: Increase 49%, No Change 42%, Decrease 9%]According to Roundtable President Lisa Ventriss, “The pattern for 2005 projected sales expectations mirrors the experience of 2004. If the pattern continues, we should see the fourth quarter 2005 demonstrate an upswing. A similar optimism exists regarding capital expenditures. Compared to this time last year, respondents are slightly more optimistic. In terms of employment levels, compared to this time last year, our members seem to be more conservative in their staffing projections.”-#-Created in 1987 as a nonprofit, public interest organization, the Vermont Business Roundtable iscomposed of 120 CEOs of Vermont’s top private and nonprofit employers dedicated to making Vermont the best place in America to do business, be educated, and live life. Member businesses employ over 47,000 employees in virtually every county across Vermont.last_img read more

Cricket News Chris Gayle beats Brian Lara’s historic record in special 300th ODI

first_imghighlights New Delhi : The Port of Spain ODI between West Indies and India was historic for Chris Gayle. The self-proclaimed Universe Boss, who missed the Twenty20 International series, struggled in the first ODI when he managed just four runs off 31 balls. However, in the second ODI, Gayle created two historic records. The match against India was his 300th for the West Indies, making him the first player from the Caribbean to achieve this feat. However, in their chase of 280, Gayle created history when he became the leading run-getter for West Indies in ODIs, breaking the record set by Brian Lara and has been in place since his retirement in the 2007 World Cup. In one over bowled by Khaleel Ahmed, Gayle sent the Queens Park Oval crowd to raptures.In the first ball of the ninth over, Gayle steered a short and wide ball to third man to break Lara’s tally of 10348 runs for West Indies. The left-hander realised the magnitude of the feat and raised his bat to the entire Queens Park Oval as the crowd acknowledged the historic achievement. Lara had scored 57 runs for the ICC World XI while Gayle had 55 runs for the World XI during their respective playing careers. Gayle still had to overtake Lara’s tally of 10405 runs and he achieved it duly in the same over when he cracked Khaleel for a cut shot over cover point to break Lara’s overall tally of 10405 runs. However, Gayle could not carry on after he had crossed the record and was trapped plumb in front for 11 by Bhuvneshwar Kumar and even the review could not save him. Gayle was widely expected to retire from international cricket at the end of the ICC Cricket World Cup 2019 but reversed his decision and made himself available for the three-match series against India. However, his return has not forced the selectors to consider him for the upcoming two-Test series which begins on August 22.Gayle has not played a Test since 2014 and it could be a sad end on August 14 when he could potentially play his final international match in the Caribbean at the same venue. However, Port of Spain witnessed a new world record as Brian Lara finally came second-best to Gayle. The Universe Boss would be hoping to create more records in Twenty20 Internationals and in various T20 leagues all over the world as his career comes to an end.  For all the Latest Sports News News, Cricket News News, Download News Nation Android and iOS Mobile Apps.center_img Chris Gayle became the leading run-getter for Windies in ODIs.Chris Gayle is the leading run-getter in ODIs overall for Windies.Chris Gayle became the first Windies player to play 300 ODIs.last_img read more