AD Classics: Kings Road House / Rudolf Schindler

first_imgPhotographs:  Joshua White PhotographyProject gallerySee allShow lessFloating Restaurant / Simo Freese ArchitectsSelected ProjectsSaint-Sauveur House / Hors-ChampsSelected Projects Share United States AD Classics: Kings Road House / Rudolf Schindler CopySecluded behind a screen of tall bamboo shoots in West Hollywood, Los Angeles, the Kings Road House may be considered the first home ever built in the Modernist style.[1] Designed by Rudolf Schindler in 1921, the architect’s use of tilt-slab concrete construction (highly innovative at the time) and an informal studio layout, set it apart from its contemporaries; indeed, the design would set the tone for other Modernist residential design for decades.+ 10During his architectural studies in his hometown of Vienna, Austria, Rudolf Schindler became intent on traveling to the United States to work with Frank Lloyd Wright. He sailed to New York only five months before the outbreak of the First World War; by the war’s end in 1918, he had achieved his goal and joined Wright’s practice. In 1919, Schindler married Sophie Pauline Gibling, a music teacher and political activist from Minneapolis who shared his distaste for traditional institutions – including marriage itself.[2]Wright invited the newlyweds to his Taliesin studio in Wisconsin in July 1920. The experience had a significant impact on both Rudolf and Sophie–the manner in which the house and its rural surroundings coexisted in harmony appealed to them, and they began to dream of building a new studio home for themselves.[3]Save this picture!Courtesy of The United States Library of CongressRecommended ProductsEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesAlucoilStructural Honeycomb Panels – LarcoreWindowsStudcoSteel Window Reveal – EzyRevealWoodParklex International S.L.Wood cladding – FacadeWindowsFAKRORoof Windows – FPP-V preSelect MAXSave this picture!Courtesy of Flickr user John ZacherleThe opportunity for Schindler to build his dream house arose when he and his wife moved to Los Angeles later that year. It was there that Schindler developed an acquaintanceship with the architect Irving Gill, who, in Schindler’s opinion, was the only local designer attempting to break away from the Spanish Colonial revival popular in Los Angeles in the early 1920s. Schindler was particularly fascinated by Gill’s work in tilt-slab construction, in which concrete walls were poured into molds and tilted into place on site after curing. The pastoral serenity of Wright’s Taliesin and the industrial efficiency of Gill’s tilt-slab concrete would ultimately come together in the designs Schindler began drawing up in November 1921.[4]Save this picture!Courtesy of The United States Library of CongressThe house was conceived not as a single-family residence, but as one to be shared with Marian and Clyde Chace. Schindler would serve as the architect for the project, while Chace acted as the builder. The partnership would therefore save the two couples money on both the labor and material costs of the project.[5] Further economy would be achieved by siting the house on a 200 square foot (18.6 square meter) lot on Kings Road in what was then unincorporated land between Beverly Hills and Hollywood. The planning phase lasted only two months, from November to December of 1921. The final scheme emerged after four design iterations, the last of which was updated to account for the impending birth of the Chace’s first child.[6]Save this picture!Courtesy of The United States Library of CongressSchindler’s scheme for the Kings Road House was a mixture of individual studios and communal living spaces. He characterized the design as a “cooperative dwelling for two young couples:” a private studio for each adult inhabitant, an entrance hall, an enclosed patio and a bathroom for each couple, two open terraces on the roof for sleeping, a single communal kitchen, and a guest apartment comprised the spaces within the house. The three-bladed pinwheel plan of the building also created several distinct garden spaces at both ends of the lot, carrying the private atmosphere of the interior into the gardens.[7]Save this picture!© Joshua WhiteThe Schindlers and Chaces broke ground on their new home on February 15, 1922.[8] All four future residents took part in the construction process, which centered on Schindler’s improvements on Gill’s tilt-slab system. Whereas Gill had prefabricated entire walls, Schindler used a system of four-foot long (1.2 meter) units, theoretically allowing them to be tilted into position by two men without the use of a crane. The seam between each slab was expressed in glass, breaking the monotony of the unfinished concrete and admitting light into the house.[9]Save this picture!Courtesy of Flickr user collectmomentsThe roof was supported by a comparatively traditional post-and-beam system. In the studios, one end of each redwood beam was supported by the concrete wall slabs; the other end was supported by two wooden posts. Nonstructural lumber, along with glass and canvas, was also used to create interior partitions and patio doorways. The resulting effect was that of heavy opacity and remarkable openness on opposite sides of each studio, with the garden foliage visible from almost every room in the house.[10]Save this picture!Courtesy of The United States Library of CongressConstruction proceeded quickly, with the house essentially completed by June 1922.[11] For two years, the Schindlers and the Chaces continued to develop their new home by installing new fixtures and purchasing furniture, neither of which they had a budget for after the initial construction of the house. Unfortunately, financial pressures continued to put strain on both couples, and after having a second child, the Chaces had to leave for Florida in July 1924. Less than a year later, Richard Neutra moved into the house along with his wife and son. Schindler’s marriage had already begun to erode before the departure of the Chaces, and while his new professional partnership with Neutra stimulated his burgeoning architectural career, his relationship with his wife only continued to decline. By 1927, Pauline split with her husband and moved out; the Neutras moved out in 1930, and though Schindler continued to lecture alongside Neutra, their relationship grew noticeably colder.[12]Save this picture!© Luke FiedererToward the end of the 1930s, Pauline returned to the house that she and her ex-husband had built. Schindler lived in the studios originally built for the two of them, while Pauline took up residence in the apartments formerly inhabited by the Chaces and the Neutras. The two shared the home as a divorced couple until Schindler’s death in 1953. In 1974, Pauline created a nonprofit organization, the Friends of the Schindler House, to help ensure the house’s preservation. The organization acquired the house in 1980 and began a program to restore the house based on its original completion in 1922. In 1994, a partnership with with the MAK/Austrian Museum of Applied Arts turned the Kings Road House into the MAK Center for Art and Architecture, Los Angeles – a public exhibition gallery in what is now considered West Hollywood.[13]Save this picture!Courtesy of The United States Library of CongressThe world has changed around the Kings Road House. What was formerly open flat land has been completely infilled; indeed, the house is now dwarfed to either side by multi-level apartment buildings. Despite this, the vision shared by Schindler and his wife in 1920 still prevails: hidden  behind its neighbors and its verdant curtain wall, the house continues to seamlessly merge indoors and outdoors into one calm, harmonious space.References[1] Smith, Kathryn. Schindler House. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2001. p7.[2] Smith, p7-14.[3] Smith, p16.[4] Smith, p17-18.[5] Smith, p18.[6] Sweeney, Robert and Judith Sheine. Schindler, Kings Road, and Southern California Modernism. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2012. p14-15.[7] Sweeney and Sheine, p15.[8] Smith, p24-28.[9] Sweeney and Sheine, p18.[10] Sweeney and Sheine, p20.[11] MAK Center. “Schindler House.” Accessed February 9, 2016.[12] Smith, p26.[13] “Schindler House.”Houses•West Hollywood, United States Area Area of this architecture project “COPY” ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard CopyAbout this officeProductsWoodGlassConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsArchitecture ClassicsResidential ArchitectureHousesWest HollywoodModernistRudolph SchindlerModernismRichard NeutraFrank Lloyd WrightLos AngelesCaliforniaRudolf SchindlerTilt PanelTilt UpClyde ChaseTilt SlabUnited StatesPublished on March 16, 2016Cite: Luke Fiederer. “AD Classics: Kings Road House / Rudolf Schindler” 16 Mar 2016. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Read commentsBrowse the CatalogMetal PanelsAurubisCopper Alloy: Nordic BrassGlassMitrexSolar GreenhouseLouvers / ShuttersTechnowoodSunshade SystemsFaucetsDornbrachtKitchen Fittings – EnoWoodSculptformTimber Tongue and Groove CladdingMembranesEffisusFaçade Fire Weatherproofing Solutions in Design District Project LondonHanging LampsLouis PoulsenPendant Lights – KeglenBlinds / Mosquito Nets / CurtainsBANDALUXPleated ShadesEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesFranken-SchotterFacade System –  LINEAWoodBlumer LehmannCNC Production for Wood ProjectsMaterials / Construction SystemsCaneplex DesignPoles – Tonkin BambooFibre Cement / ConcreteTegralFibre Cement Slate Roofing – Thrutone Endurance SmoothMore products »Read commentsSave想阅读文章的中文版本吗?国王路的房子/ Rudolf Schindler是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard ArchDaily Photographscenter_img Year:  1922 “COPY” AD Classics: Kings Road House / Rudolf SchindlerSave this projectSaveAD Classics: Kings Road House / Rudolf Schindler Area:  3500 ft² Year Completion year of this architecture project Projects Houses Save this picture!© Joshua WhiteWritten by Luke Fiederer Sharelast_img read more

Program makes it easier for lawyers to evaluate judges

first_img March 15, 2001 Regular News Program makes it easier for lawyers to evaluate judges Program makes it easier for lawyers to evaluate judges The Florida Bar’s Judicial Evaluation Committee has approved a significant expansion of its circuit judge evaluation by allowing attorneys to directly receive and return evaluation forms. “We’ve been calling it the attorney participation initiative,” said JEC Chair Jennifer Coberly. “The impetus is to have the program be effective in its goal and to provide the judiciary with feedback. It’s important for reasons of judicial independence. “People want to feel there’s a meaningful evaluation system in place. We’ve tried to increase the participation as much as possible.” The circuit judge evaluation program began just over three years ago. Under the program, when judges send out a final order in a case to the lawyers, they can include an evaluation form. The lawyers can fill out the form, make comments and return it to The Florida Bar. When a sufficient number of forms for an individual judge have been accumulated, the forms are mailed to the judge for review. The judge, at his or her option, can review the forms with the chief circuit judge, but the contents are otherwise confidential. In the new program, Coberly said, lawyers can get the form on their own, fill it out, and return it to the Bar. “When there’s a final order of any kind, we would like the lawyers to directly access the evaluation form and fill it out,” she said. Coberly said the committee embarked on the new program because it wants to boost participation in the evaluation process. “The judges [who use the evaluation process] are happy with it and the attorneys [who use the process] are happy with it,” she said. “The problem is getting enough participation. “A lot of attorneys don’t know this program is available. We want to give them the opportunity.” To get a form, go to the Bar’s website at, and click on Organization. Under the Committees listing, choose Standing, and then select the Judicial Evaluation Committee. There are links in the text to both the trial and appellate judicial evaluation forms, as well as instructions for filling out the forms. (Use your browser’s print command to print out the form.) Those without Internet access can obtain the forms from Doris Maffei, The Florida Bar, 651 E. Jefferson Street, Tallahassee 32399, or by calling Maffei at 850/561-5670. Completed forms should be placed in an unmarked envelope (Maffei noted that some lawyers have enclosed the forms in envelopes with their firms’ addresses). The envelope should state the judge’s name and his or her circuit or county and be addressed as follows: c/o Judicial Evaluation Committee, P.O. Box 11067, Tallahassee 32302-3067. (See illustration) Coberly said lawyers should also use care in filling out the form so that they do not include anything that identifies them or the case. Forms are held until several are collected and then forwarded to the judge, which further helps guarantee anonymity for participating attorneys. “We really want this to work and be an effective way to let judges know how they’re doing,” Coberly said.last_img read more

FDIC, echoing NAFCU, clarifies Volcker rule requirements

first_img ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr continue reading » FDIC Board Member Martin Gruenberg this week made clear that relief language in S. 2155 regarding the Volcker rule is intended for community banks – not all banks regardless of asset size as some have argued. Gruenberg’s conclusion on the intent of the language supports NAFCU’s view, which was shared with the FDIC and other bank regulators earlier this month.“There has been some discussion that the new statute can be read in a way that would allow any bank, regardless of asset size, to be exempt from the Volcker Rule if its trading assets and liabilities are five percent or less of its total consolidated assets … This was not the intent of the new statute as I understand it … I believe it is clear that this statutory exemption … appl[ies] only to banking organizations with $10 billion or less in total consolidated assets and that the limitation on trading assets and liabilities is an additional limitation placed on this defined group of banking organizations,” Gruenberg said.In a letter to the OCC, FDIC, Federal Reserve, Commodities Futures Trading Commission, and Securities and Exchange Commission, NAFCU Executive Vice President of Government Affairs and General Counsel Carrie Hunt gave a similar explanation to the intent of this portion of S. 2155. She further noted that the Volcker rule is a “critical reform that emerged from the financial crisis which addresses, among other things, the riskiest of all investment behaviors – investing in private equity or hedge funds using a bank’s own accounts for the bank’s own benefit.”last_img read more