The importance of geomagnetic field changes versus rising CO2 levels for long-term change in the upper atmosphere

first_imgThe Earth’s upper atmosphere has shown signs of cooling and contraction over the past decades. This is generally attributed to the increasing level of atmospheric CO2, a coolant in the upper atmosphere. However, especially the charged part of the upper atmosphere, the ionosphere, also responds to the Earth’s magnetic field, which has been weakening considerably over the past century, as well as changing in structure. The relative importance of the changing geomagnetic field compared to enhanced CO2 levels for long-term change in the upper atmosphere is still a matter of debate. Here we present a quantitative comparison of the effects of the increase in CO2 concentration and changes in the magnetic field from 1908 to 2008, based on simulations with the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). This demonstrates that magnetic field changes contribute at least as much as the increase in CO2 concentration to changes in the height of the maximum electron density in the ionosphere, and much more to changes in the maximum electron density itself and to low-/mid-latitude ionospheric currents. Changes in the magnetic field even contribute to cooling of the thermosphere at ~300 km altitude, although the increase in CO2 concentration is still the dominant factor here. Both processes are roughly equally important for long-term changes in ion temperature.last_img read more

John Silvanus Wilson Jr. named Ed School Convocation speaker

first_img Read Full Story Harvard Graduate School of Education Dean James E. Ryan is pleased to announce that John Silvanus Wilson Jr., Ed.M.’82, Ed.D.’85, senior adviser and strategist to the president at Harvard University, will address the graduating class and their families at convocation on May 23, 2018.“Throughout his expansive career, and with unrivaled dedication to his alma maters, John has been working faithfully to ensure that colleges and universities reach their full potential as sites of personal transformation and social progress,” said Ryan. “This year, we had the great fortune of hosting John as a president-in-residence and we’re delighted for our graduates to hear from a remarkable HGSE alumnus and visionary leader. We’re deeply indebted to the HGSE Speakers Committee, chaired by [Professor] Paul Reville, for recommending John to be this year’s convocation speaker.”Wilson, the former president of Morehouse College, has also served as a member of the Board of Overseers, the former head of the White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities under President Obama, and as a former senior administrator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.“When Dean Ryan reached out to me to officially extend the invitation, he let me know that a committee of students, faculty, and staff jointly made the decision. I know this may sound or seem like a standard thing to say, but I truly regard it as an honor and a privilege to have been selected,” said Wilson. “I know they could have chosen any number of educators or brand-name people from around the country or world. That they chose me feels quite special and when it’s all said and done, I want the graduates to feel that their trust in me was well-placed!”After leaving Morehouse College last March, Wilson returned to HGSE’s campus to begin work on a book on the future of higher education, with an emphasis on black colleges, and became immersed in the community once again, co-teaching classes in the Higher Education Program, and developing relationships with students, faculty, and staff.“HGSE is still a place where people come to imagine and plan better ways to realize powerful educational outcomes. I felt that way about this special community when I was here in 1985, and I still see and sense those virtues 32 years later,” Wilson said. “Beside the impressive professionalism of the staff, there remains among the students and faculty a deep understanding of the full range of educational challenges facing our nation. There is also a palpable determination to come up with new ways to fix what’s broken. I have met people here who are grappling with and trying to solve some of the most intractable problems in education.  I just love the energetic, creative, and innovative spirit that is evident in people on that kind of journey.”last_img read more

MaxEnt lodges appeal against UKGC licence revocation

first_img UKGC lifts Matchbook suspension August 12, 2020 Submit Share Share Related Articles ‘Pent-up demand’ for live sports drives gambling pick-up in June August 17, 2020 StumbleUpon EPIC and Whysup ‘continue to make real change’ with partnership renewal August 19, 2020 Following the recent announcement that the UK Gambling Commission (UKGC) has revoked the remote casino and remote linked gambling software licence of online casino operator MaxEnt Limited, the operator has since lodged an appeal challenging the licence revocation. Trading under the Maxent NRR Entertainment banner, the decision to revoke the MaxEnt licence comes after the identification of concerns relating to the operator’s finances and information supplied to the commission.As permitted by the Commission, MaxEnt has been given a deadline for an appeal submission of the 18th June 2019. The operator has since claimed the Gambling Commission’s criteria has been satisfied regarding whether the company was adequately funded both in the short- and long-term, and that the regulator is happy with the source of this funding.The operator confirmed that the Gambling Commission’s issues were not linked in any way to ‘the business is run or with how customers are treated’ but rather the issues stemmed from ‘the transition period which happened prior to the change of management’.As part of its appeal process, MaxEnt has stated that it ‘will seek to have proper regard of the change of management taken’.Expressing disappointment in the UKGC ruling, MaxEnt emphasised: “We feel that the Commission’s decision is not sufficiently objective, hence why we are appealing.  We do not intend to leave the UK market at this time.“We are hopeful of a positive outcome following our appeal, but we will be carefully considering our position in the UK market, nonetheless.”last_img read more

Igokea defeated Široki, Spurs Celebrated in Trebinje after Two Extensions

first_imgIn the seventh round of the League 6, players of Široki felt the bitterness of the defeat for the first time. Igokea celebrated with a result of 78:76 in Laktaši, and their sixth triumph lead them to the top of the rankings.What is important for the team of Željko Lukajić is that they have annulled the advantage of Široki from the first match (57:63), and that they are entering the play-off from the first position in case they win all the matches by the end of the League 6.The captain Branko Jorović scored 16 points, Marko Čakarević 15, and Duško Bunić 11. Ivan Novačić scored 16 points for the guest team, which again brought him the title of the most efficient player, while Toni Katić scored one point less.Basketball fans could watch a dramatic match in Trebinje, where Sarajevo Spars crushed the resistance of Leotar after two extensions. The match ended with a result of 74:68 in favor of Spars, while the regular part ended with a result of 53:53.Leotar has got much to regret for, since they were six points in advantage by the end of the first extension. Sarajevans equalized the result with a three-pointer of Nedim Buza and lead the match to the second extension. Adi Zahiragić scored the key points for the victory, one three-pointer and two free throws.In the host team, Dušan Cvetković had a double-double effect with 13 points and 10 rebounds. In the Spars team, Nedim Buza has shown an excellence with 20 points and 13 rebounds, while Nikola Đurasović scored 21 points and made 9 rebounds.Zrinjski realized the first victory on Tuesday in Mostar. In an exciting finale, they have overpowered Sloboda from Tuzla with a result of 83:78. Vedran Princ scored 20 points for the team from Mostar, while Ramo Rizvić scored 21 points for Tuzla team.Following matches are to be played in the eighth round: Spars-Zrinjski (Saturday), Široki-Leotar, Sloboda-Igokea (Sunday).Rankings:Igokea 6-1Široki 6-1Spars 4-3Sloboda 3-4Zrinjski 1-6Leotar 1-6(Source: read more